[172] According to P.C. That a particular policy area falls into a certain category of competence is not necessarily indicative of what legislative procedure is used for enacting legislation within that policy area. [78] A referendum in the UK on its membership of the European Union was held in 2016, with 51.9% of participants voting to leave. [248], The European System of Financial Supervision is an institutional architecture of the EU's framework of financial supervision composed by three authorities: the European Banking Authority, the European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority and the European Securities and Markets Authority. For more information see, See Article 288 (ex Article 249 TEC) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, on, According to the principle of Direct Effect first invoked in the Court of Justice's decision in. The only institution empowered to propose legislation, serves as the "Guardian of the Treaties". The aim of this financial control system is to ensure the economic stability of the EU.[249]. They also signed another pact creating the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) for co-operation in developing nuclear energy. In 1987 the European Political Cooperation was introduced on a formal basis by the Single European Act. "[75][76] In 2013, Croatia became the 28th EU member. [281], In 2017, the EU emitted 9.1% of global greenhouse-gas emissions. The European Court of Auditors has signed off the European Union accounts every year since 2007 and, while making it clear that the European Commission has more work to do, has highlighted that most of the errors take place at national level. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of lawsthat apply in all member states in those matters, and only those matters, where members have agreed to act as one. [292] A directive on cross-border healthcare aims at promoting co-operation on health care between member states and facilitating access to safe and high-quality cross-border healthcare for European patients. [304], The Treaty of Lisbon requires any application of economic rules to take into account the specific nature of sport and its structures based on voluntary activity. The Dollar As Leading Reserve Currency", "There Are Only Two Real Threats To The US Dollar's Status As The International Reserve Currency", "Global 500 2010: Countries – Australia", "Euro area unemployment rate at 10.3%, EU28 at 8.9%", "Regional GDP per capita ranged from 31% to 626% of the EU average in 2017", "Living and working in the Single Market", "Almunia says 'undesirable' to act on Sweden's euro refusal", "Europe seals deal on financial supervision", "Energy consumption and production: EU27 energy dependence rate at 54% in 2006: Energy consumption stable", "Kazakhstan's Gas: Export Markets and Export Routes", "Ukraine-Russia gas dispute – call for stronger EU energy policy", "The trans-European transport network: new guidelines and financial rules", "EUR 650 million for the Polish Road Network", "Jacques Barrot Home Page, Commission vice president for transport", "Agriculture: Meeting the needs of farmers and consumers", "Sugar: Commission proposes more market-, consumer- and trade-friendly regime", "The Commission prohibits GE's acquisition of Honeywell", "Microsoft caves in to European Commission", "Eurostat - Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table", "Así es el seguro europeo contra el paro que propone el futuro comisario de Empleo de la UE - elEconomista.es", "Proposed EU directive on minimum wage brews controversy from all sides", "Union of Equality: The Commission presents its first-ever strategy on LGBTIQ equality in the EU", "Chapter 2: The European Union Structural and Cohesion Funds", "Populists, greens and the new map of European politics", "EU summit deadlock over top jobs and climate discord", "The Erasmus programme celebrates its 20th anniversary", "About the Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency", "2019 Human Development Index Ranking | Human Development Reports", "In Europe, life expectancy is lower in the east", "Life expectancy: Are you in one of the top 5 regions? [124] Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo are officially recognised as potential candidates,[123] with Bosnia and Herzegovina having submitted a membership application. 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Euratom was to integrate sectors in nuclear energy while the EEC would develop a customs union among members. News. The largest absolute numbers of people born outside the EU were in Germany (6.4 million), France (5.1 million), the United Kingdom (4.7 million), Spain (4.1 million), Italy (3.2 million), and the Netherlands (1.4 million). The EU has also promoted human rights issues in the wider world. [329], Economic and political union of European states, International organisations in which the union has membership, International cooperation and development partnerships, European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC or Euratom), Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters, The 24 languages are equally official and accepted as working languages. [238] In 2016, unemployment in the EU stood at 8.9%[239] while inflation was at 2.2%, and the current account balance at −0.9% of GDP. In particular, it changed the legal structure of the European Union, merging the EU three pillars system into a single legal entity provisioned with a legal personality, created a permanent President of the European Council, the first of which was Herman Van Rompuy, and strengthened the position of the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. Cities are largely spread out across the EU with a large grouping in and around the Benelux. The Lisbon Treaty further strengthened the leadership ambitions. Besides naming the continent, the Greek mythological figure of Europa has frequently been employed as a personification of Europe. In 1960, the budget of the then European Economic Community was 0.03% of GDP. [91], The EU also has numerous polycentric urbanised regions like Rhine-Ruhr (Cologne, Dortmund, Düsseldorf et al. Before this, three territories of member states had left the EU or its forerunners. 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